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Feedback Jutta Eckstein, Joseph Bergin, Helen Sharp. “Feedback Patterns”. Proceedings of EuroPLoP 2002. [EBS2] In this set the Feedback pattern is the “door” to the collection. It gives an overall view. Ensure that the participants understood the topic. Feedback Differentiated Feedback Try It Yourself Kinds of Exam Challenge Understanding

Teacher's Language Students apply the theory they’ve learned. Try It Yourself Self Test Fill In The Blanks Participants trust in their own knowledge. Own Words Peer Feedback Embrace Correction Peer Grading Student Online Portfolios Reduce Risk Provide feedback that motivates the participants. Feedback Sandwich

Differentiated Feedback Early Warning Gold Star Human Professor Participants become less dependent on yourself. Peer Grading Embrace Correction Student Online Portfolios Participants learn from their own experience. Embrace Correction Grade It Again, Sam The value of gained knowledge becomes visible. Student Online Portfolios Gold Star

Participants are able to prepare for the exam. Self Test Mock Exam Ensure fair (individual) grading. Fair Grading Fair Project Grading Key Ideas Dominate Grading Grade It Again, Sam Human Professor You want to grade teams fairly. One Grade For All Peer Grading Fair Team Grading You want to know if you and the course were useful

useful for the students. Acquire Participants’ Feedback Anonymous Feedback Experiential Learning Jutta Eckstein, Mary Lynn Manns, Eugene Wallingford, Klaus Marquardt. “Patterns for Experiential Learning”, Proceedings of EuroPLoP 2001. [EMWM] Students must remember what they learn. See Before Hear Experiencing in the Tiny, Small, and Large Set The Stage Digestible Packets

Encourage participation by all students. Round Robin Help students grasp the whole picture. Student Design Sprint Toy Box

Gaining Different Perspectives Joseph Bergin, Jutta Eckstein, Mary Lynn Manns, Eugene Wallingford. “Patterns for Gaining Different Perspectives”, Proceedings of PLoP 2001. [BEMW]

Encourage participation by all students. Round Robin Help students grasp the whole picture. Student Design Sprint Toy Box

Gaining Different Perspectives Joseph Bergin, Jutta Eckstein, Mary Lynn Manns, Eugene Wallingford. “Patterns for Gaining Different Perspectives”, Proceedings of PLoP 2001. [BEMW]

Here the “door” is Different Approaches. Reach students with different learning modes Different Approaches Teach an especially difficult and detailed topic Consistent Metaphor Lay Of The Land New Pedagogy For New Paradigms Take A Risk Help the kinesthetic learners especially Physical Analogy

Role Play Students draw on their own resources, not just yours Reflection Explore For Yourself Test Tube Kinds of Exam Reduce Risk Teach a topic in which many parts all relate to each other Spiral

Lay Of The Land Digestible Packets Draw on students prior knowledge and update it Linking Old To New Teaching From Different Perspectives Jutta Eckstein, Mary Lynn Manns, Helen Sharp, Marianna Sipos. “Teaching From Different Perspectives”, Proceedings of EuroPLoP 2003. [EMSS] Prepare the students for the world outside the

course. Wider Perspective Nobody Is Perfect Fixer Upper Make use of the different perspectives peers can provide. Team Teaching Industry Partner Include the different perspectives your students can provide. Round and Deep

Cover as many topics as possible without losing the focus. Multi Pronged Attack Early Bird Rearrangement Fixer Upper Lay Of The Land Besides knowledge, you want your students to develop tools that they can use later on. Tool Box

Scaling the Patterns Many of the patterns here fit into a time scale. Some of them apply to the course as a whole, and some are only applicable for a few moments in a class session. Here we give advice about which patterns to apply at these different times and scales:  Prior to the Course New Pedagogy For New Paradigms Abstraction Gravity

Rearrangement Course as a Whole Early Bird Spiral Multi Pronged Attack Groups Work Active Student Prefer Writing Reduce Risk

Students Decide Teacher's Language Different Approaches Wider Perspective Nobody Is Perfect Team Teaching Human Professor Feedback Introvert - Extrovert Acquire Participants’ Feedback Early Warning

Key Ideas Dominate Grading Student Online Portfolios Fair Grading Starting the Course (or Major Topics) Lay Of The Land Role Play Fixer Upper Consistent Metaphor Expand the Known World

Set The Stage Take A Risk Reflection Linking Old To New Scale of Weeks Larger Than Life Tool Box Take A Risk Real World Experience

Study Groups Experiencing in the Tiny, Small, and Large One Concept -- Several Implementations Industry Partner Kinds of Exam Student Selected Activities Mock Exam Self Test Peer Grading Different Exercise Levels Fair Team Grading

Fair Project Grading Scale of Days Fill In The Blanks Different Exercise Levels Three Bears Teacher Selects Teams One Grade For All Explore For Yourself Adopt An Artifact

Critique Embrace Correction Self Test See Before Hear Repeat Yourself Built-In Failure Mission Impossible

Toy Box

Human Professor Anonymous Feedback

Differentiated Feedback Student Selected Activities Different Exercise Levels Grade It Again, Sam Scale of Hours Student Driven Lecture Expose the Process Digestible Packets Role Play

Invisible Teacher Shot Gun Seminar Challenge Understanding War Game Build and Maintain Confidence Round and Deep Gold Star Scale of Minutes Gold Star

Test Tube Feedback Sandwich Honor Questions Nobody Is Perfect Peer Feedback Shout It From The Rooftops Try It Yourself Mistake Round Robin Physical Analogy

The Patterns

Abstraction Gravity -- From High To Low * Patterns for Experiential Learning This pattern is based on Gary L. Craig's Discussion-Activity-Review-Lab-Review [GLC] pattern and revised by Jane Chandler. You are about to start a new topic, which has many levels of abstraction. *** Concepts that must be understood at two levels of abstraction require time for a Spiral approach to learning. However this can be time consuming.

Therefore, introduce a concept at its highest level of abstraction and use reflection on the concept to link the higher-level abstraction to the lower one. Introduce each level of abstraction with concrete, practical examples or exercises. When designing examples or exercises relate the abstract concept to students' concrete experiences (see Solution Before Abstraction) and ensure that students see a number of examples of the concept (as in One Concept -- Several Implementations).

Consider carefully which of the abstraction levels of the concept to emphasize, e.g., the higher or lower level or the transformation process between the levels of abstraction, as this will drive the level of detail required in each activity. A consequence of this pattern is that students appreciate the links between the concept's different levels of abstraction. *** For example, begin with a class-wide discussion of the concept at its highest level of abstraction without focusing on the details. This will support

support understanding the big picture. Follow this with small group exercises based around specific (detailed) issues. Next, review the results of the exercises with the whole class, paying particular attention to both common and alternative solutions. Use a second set of exercises to enable the students to produce the lower level of abstraction for themselves. Where appropriate the lower level abstraction, at least in part, should be illustrated through a transformation. Finally, evaluate the results of the second set of exercises and reflect on the connections between the abstraction levels. This pattern can be used in analysis & design or

design & coding courses to show the relationship between the two phases and provide a context for the decisions made. For example, introduce the design issues in an initial, class-wide discussion and follow this with the students undertaking a design exercise. Students then have a sense of "ownership" of the problem and subsequent design and from this position they can then be asked to code the design and finally to review and evaluate their code in relation to their design.

Acquire Participants’ Feedback ** Feedback Patterns This pattern is based on Participant’s Feedback, written by Astrid Fricke and Markus Völter [VF] and revised by Jutta Eckstein. You want to improve your way of teaching, both in terms of style and contents. *** You believe you use a teaching style that enables learning. However you have just a one-sided view on your teaching style and you can never be sure how well this style is received by

the students and how well this supports their requirements of a good learning environment. Successful exams and exercises are one way of receiving feedback if your teaching style is efficient, but still students might have only passed, because they asked for outside help. *** Therefore, invite the participants to provide feedback on your teaching style. You can establish an open discussion about your teaching style and efficiency, however the possibility of Anonymous Feedback leads often to more honest results. To get a comparable result,

result, be sure to provide enough guidance for the participants by asking specific questions on your teaching style and supply some criteria so they can rate you on a given scale. In order to not lose valuable feedback during a course and to enable course corrections along the way, ask the participants to provide feedback not only at the end of the course, but also during the course. *** A very common technique is the feedback form that each participant can fill in. It keeps the participants anonymous if they want to be. It is, however, more useful if used during the course, rather than just at the end.

Active Student ** Patterns for Active Learning This pattern was originated by Joseph Bergin as Active Student and by Astrid Fricke and Markus Völter as Work Forms [VF]. You want to maximize student learning. *** Passive students don't learn much. If students listen to explanations, without themselves becoming engaged, what is learned is unlikely to go into long-term memory. The deep consequences of a theory are unlikely to be obvious to one

who reads about, or hears about the theory. The unexpected difficulties inherent in using the theory or applying the ideas are not likely to be apparent until the theory is actually used. However you might have grown up with only the passive style of teaching and really don’t know anything else. But, readings, lectures, and multi-media demonstrations, unless interactive, leave students passive. *** Therefore: keep the students active. They should be active in class, either with questions or with exercises. They should be active out of

class. Reading alone is often insufficiently active. Short readings should be followed by activities that reinforce what has been learned in the reading. The same is true of information given verbally or even visually through multi-media visualizations. If the students don't actively engage the material, they won't retain it. They need to write and they need to "do." Choose (or write) textbooks and other materials that have a lot of activities at different levels of scale and difficulty. Consider using Different Approaches for taking different sensory modalities into account when engaging students.

Students can write as well as read (Prefer Writing), they can answer questions in writing or orally. Give them opportunities to work together, using Groups Work, or Study Groups both in class and out of class. Make them answer their own questions, as in Test Tube. Allow them to learn a concept by exploring or trying it for themselves (Explore For Yourself, Try It Yourself, or Explain It Yourself [EBS]). You should ideally try to alternate between the different teaching and learning styles. The most important aspect of course planning is in knowing what the students will be doing

throughout the course. Remember that your job is not to give the students information. It isn't really even showing them ways to find information. Your real job is to turn them into builders of new information structures so they will be able to solve the problems of their days. This is an inherently active process. *** While taking this pattern into account is most often more efficient and fun for the students, it means much more effort for you in terms of preparation and attention during the session than a traditional lecture style session.

Lecture-style teaching should only be used, if you intend to pass a lot of information in a short time frame. The emphasis is on passing information and not on understanding information. *** Joe Bergin often phrased the underlying idea of this pattern as: "It doesn't matter what I do. It only matters what my students do." A corollary to this idea is that of the Active Lecture, in which the students are active during "lecture" time. See Student Design Sprint, for example.

Joe Bergin often phrased the underlying idea of this pattern as: "It doesn't matter what I do. It only matters what my students do." A corollary to this idea is that of the Active Lecture, in which the students are active during "lecture" time. See Student Design Sprint, for example. A special case of this is Christoph Steindl's Self Test Pattern. A self-test is a pseudo exam that the students may take informally to prepare themselves for an upcoming exam. Make these available, but don't require them. Provide answers and feedback for those who ask for it. Law schools use moot court and Law Review and a number of other devices to keep the students active.

Business schools use case studies requiring extensive write-ups for the same purpose. Medical students have a “path pot1” where they are given a set of organs from a deceased patient and must explain the reason for the patient’s death. 1    A path pot is a pot or bucket that contains the organs of a person who died while under the care of a physician on the faculty at the medical school.

A special case of this is Christoph Steindl's Self Test Pattern. A self-test is a pseudo exam that the students may take informally to prepare themselves for an upcoming exam. Make these available, but don't require them. Provide answers and feedback for those who ask for it. Law schools use moot court and Law Review and a number of other devices to keep the students active. Business schools use case studies requiring extensive write-ups for the same purpose. Medical students have a “path pot1” where they are given a set of organs from a deceased patient and must explain the reason for the patient’s death.

1    A path pot is a pot or bucket that contains the organs of a person who died while under the care of a physician on the faculty at the medical school.

Adopt An Artifact * Patterns for Active Learning This pattern was originated by Fernando Brieto e Abreu’s Peer Review and Corrective Maintenance [FBA] pattern. Feedback for some artifacts is available. It was received for example via Peer Feedback or otherwise. *** Outside the training environment people seldom have the chance to develop something from scratch. More often it is required that they maintain either their own artifacts or artifacts

produced by other people. However the training environment rarely takes this into account. Students typically develop an artifact by themselves. This requires a complete understanding of the artifact’s domain. However, because the students are human, they try to solve all problems in a similar way, using their individual thinking or problem solving process. But a lot can be learned by understanding and working with an artifact produced by somebody else. *** Therefore ask the students to improve and extend artifacts from their peers. In order to do

so, they have to comprehend the way in which their assigned peers have approached their task. Instead of incorporating feedback into her own artifact, the student has to make these corrections and extensions to the artifact of her peer. If the artifact was produced by a group of students, the whole team will now work on an artifact of a different team. If the artifact is rather complex you might consider that an agent from the producer team will support the maintenance team. The agent can provide valuable insights to the complex artifact.

If you can’t find an artifact that is produced during your current course, you should consider using an artifact that was created in another course. Mission Impossible could be used to further help the students change their accustomed problem solving process. You can use Real World Experience as the basis for Adopt An Artifact to give the students the real feel for the work place. If feedback on the artifact was obtained via Peer Feedback you could either ask the review team to

incorporate their feedback by themselves, or you can hand the artifact as well as the feedback over to a completely different team. *** The students will learn by understanding the artifact of their peers. They will have to gain a deep insight in order to be able to improve the artifact. A variation of Adopt An Artifact, is maintaining your own artifact if it was produced some time earlier. A lot can also be learned by understanding an artifact produced by yourself a while ago. (Thanks to Linda Rising for this reference.)

This pattern language was developed in this way. Most of the patterns were originally written by authors who have moved on to other areas of interest. The whole pedagogical patterns community provides feedback to the patterns, which are then in turn incorporated by the reviser. Jim McKim (Rensselaer at Hartford) develops projects over several courses. Each class starts with an artifact in the state in which the previous class left it. They must understand, improve, and extend what they have been given.

Anonymous Feedback * Feedback Patterns This is a rewriting and extension by Joseph Bergin of Anonymous Mailbox [VF]. You are teaching a course and you value the opinions of your students. You want your course to be as good as possible and to improve over time. *** Often your students know things about your course that you do not. Sometimes they have definite opinions about the things you do, some positive and some not. If you don’t find out

about these things you can’t respond to them. In particular you cannot dispel student misconceptions. In addition, some students will feel uncomfortable about expressing their views in public for fear of recrimination or ridicule. *** Therefore, provide an Anonymous Feedback channel through which your students can communicate with you. Encourage them to say whatever is on their mind. The best Anonymous Feedback channel is a public one. This seems counterintuitive, but it actually works to your benefit when some students

are dissatisfied. Students can and will defend you from the occasional attack that is not justified. There is web technology that can be used to provide this. A form on a web page can be used to send you arbitrary information. An even better solution is a specialized web server called a wiki in which every visitor can edit every page. Here a student can post a comment, praise or complaint, at any time, and have it answered by others. Some online chat facilities can provide anonymous feedback. A simpler technique is just to request anonymous messages from students in your regular mail, or

to provide a special box in which to place anonymous messages. If students point out problems in your methodology it is, perhaps, best not to respond in words, but in actions, changing your techniques and materials. In particular, don’t adopt a defensive attitude in responding to suggestions. It will probably not help your image. However, if students ask you to do something that you know you can and should not do (make their lives easier, for example) you can devilishly point them to your Pedagogical Patterns, which explain in detail why it is good that you work them so hard.

Of course, most universities and many companies have a form in which the students can comment in a structured way on the course. Encourage written comments on these forms that go beyond the standard questions. *** If you get a lot of negative feedback this way, you should rethink your presentation style. Perhaps you are not open enough to your students. Perhaps you need to improve your pedagogy. It can be humbling, but it can also be a powerful way to improve your teaching.

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